The religion of Buddhism was founded in 563 to 460 B.C.E. by Siddhartha Gautama, who was born and raised as an aristocrat of India. As an adult, Guatama became dissolutioned by the lifestyle of an aristocrat and began a journey into the suffering souls of the lower class people. It was here that Siddhartha Gautama decided to embark on a spiritual quest to find the end of emotional suffering and physical discomfort. During his travels and spiritual journey, he found the way to enlightenment was to be attained through meditation, living a simple life without many creature comforts, and ridding the self of longing and want. Thus, Buddhism came into being.
The tenets of Buddism are based upon traditional core beliefs which are central to the Buddhist. The belief in reincarnation is a central concept. Along the lines of reincarnation lie the concepts of Karma and Dharma. There are also the Four Noble Truths that are fundamental to Buddhism. The Four Truths consist of dukkha (suffering), samudaya (there is a cause for all suffering), nirodha (there is an end for suffering), and magga (in order to end suffering, the eightfold path must be followed).
For the Buddhist, the eightfold path sets the tone for proper thought and action in order to attain enlightenment. The eightfold path consists of the following:
Panna (wisdom): Right thinking and understanding
Sila (Virtue): Right Speech, conduct, and livelihood
Samadhi (meditation): Right effort, mindfulness, and concentration
The ultimate goal of Buddhism is to attain Nirvana, which is the liberation and release from the cycle of birth, death, rebirth, and continuation of suffering.